view env/lib/python3.9/site-packages/bs4/tests/ @ 0:4f3585e2f14b draft default tip

"planemo upload commit 60cee0fc7c0cda8592644e1aad72851dec82c959"
author shellac
date Mon, 22 Mar 2021 18:12:50 +0000
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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""Tests of Beautiful Soup as a whole."""

from pdb import set_trace
import logging
import unittest
import sys
import tempfile

from bs4 import (
from bs4.builder import (
from bs4.element import (

import bs4.dammit
from bs4.dammit import (
from bs4.testing import (
import warnings

    from bs4.builder import LXMLTreeBuilder, LXMLTreeBuilderForXML
except ImportError as e:
    LXML_PRESENT = False

PYTHON_3_PRE_3_2 = (sys.version_info[0] == 3 and sys.version_info < (3,2))

class TestConstructor(SoupTest):

    def test_short_unicode_input(self):
        data = "<h1>éé</h1>"
        soup = self.soup(data)
        self.assertEqual("éé", soup.h1.string)

    def test_embedded_null(self):
        data = "<h1>foo\0bar</h1>"
        soup = self.soup(data)
        self.assertEqual("foo\0bar", soup.h1.string)

    def test_exclude_encodings(self):
        utf8_data = "Räksmörgås".encode("utf-8")
        soup = self.soup(utf8_data, exclude_encodings=["utf-8"])
        self.assertEqual("windows-1252", soup.original_encoding)

    def test_custom_builder_class(self):
        # Verify that you can pass in a custom Builder class and
        # it'll be instantiated with the appropriate keyword arguments.
        class Mock(object):
            def __init__(self, **kwargs):
                self.called_with = kwargs
                self.is_xml = True
                self.store_line_numbers = False
                self.cdata_list_attributes = []
                self.preserve_whitespace_tags = []
                self.string_containers = {}
            def initialize_soup(self, soup):
            def feed(self, markup):
                self.fed = markup
            def reset(self):
            def ignore(self, ignore):
            set_up_substitutions = can_be_empty_element = ignore
            def prepare_markup(self, *args, **kwargs):
                yield "prepared markup", "original encoding", "declared encoding", "contains replacement characters"
        kwargs = dict(
            # This is a deprecated BS3-era keyword argument, which
            # will be stripped out.
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True):
            soup = BeautifulSoup('', builder=Mock, **kwargs)
        assert isinstance(soup.builder, Mock)
        self.assertEqual(dict(var="value"), soup.builder.called_with)
        self.assertEqual("prepared markup", soup.builder.fed)
        # You can also instantiate the TreeBuilder yourself. In this
        # case, that specific object is used and any keyword arguments
        # to the BeautifulSoup constructor are ignored.
        builder = Mock(**kwargs)
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as w:
            soup = BeautifulSoup(
                '', builder=builder, ignored_value=True,
        msg = str(w[0].message)
        assert msg.startswith("Keyword arguments to the BeautifulSoup constructor will be ignored.")
        self.assertEqual(builder, soup.builder)
        self.assertEqual(kwargs, builder.called_with)

    def test_parser_markup_rejection(self):
        # If markup is completely rejected by the parser, an
        # explanatory ParserRejectedMarkup exception is raised.
        class Mock(TreeBuilder):
            def feed(self, *args, **kwargs):
                raise ParserRejectedMarkup("Nope.")

        def prepare_markup(self, *args, **kwargs):
            # We're going to try two different ways of preparing this markup,
            # but feed() will reject both of them.
            yield markup, None, None, False
            yield markup, None, None, False
        import re
            "The markup you provided was rejected by the parser. Trying a different parser or a different encoding may help.",
            BeautifulSoup, '', builder=Mock,
    def test_cdata_list_attributes(self):
        # Most attribute values are represented as scalars, but the
        # HTML standard says that some attributes, like 'class' have
        # space-separated lists as values.
        markup = '<a id=" an id " class=" a class "></a>'
        soup = self.soup(markup)

        # Note that the spaces are stripped for 'class' but not for 'id'.
        a = soup.a
        self.assertEqual(" an id ", a['id'])
        self.assertEqual(["a", "class"], a['class'])

        # TreeBuilder takes an argument called 'mutli_valued_attributes'  which lets
        # you customize or disable this. As always, you can customize the TreeBuilder
        # by passing in a keyword argument to the BeautifulSoup constructor.
        soup = self.soup(markup, builder=default_builder, multi_valued_attributes=None)
        self.assertEqual(" a class ", soup.a['class'])

        # Here are two ways of saying that `id` is a multi-valued
        # attribute in this context, but 'class' is not.
        for switcheroo in ({'*': 'id'}, {'a': 'id'}):
            with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as w:
                # This will create a warning about not explicitly
                # specifying a parser, but we'll ignore it.
                soup = self.soup(markup, builder=None, multi_valued_attributes=switcheroo)
            a = soup.a
            self.assertEqual(["an", "id"], a['id'])
            self.assertEqual(" a class ", a['class'])

    def test_replacement_classes(self):
        # Test the ability to pass in replacements for element classes
        # which will be used when building the tree.
        class TagPlus(Tag):

        class StringPlus(NavigableString):

        class CommentPlus(Comment):
        soup = self.soup(
            element_classes = {
                Tag: TagPlus,
                NavigableString: StringPlus,
                Comment: CommentPlus,

        # The tree was built with TagPlus, StringPlus, and CommentPlus objects,
        # rather than Tag, String, and Comment objects.
        assert all(
            isinstance(x, (TagPlus, StringPlus, CommentPlus))
            for x in soup.recursiveChildGenerator()

    def test_alternate_string_containers(self):
        # Test the ability to customize the string containers for
        # different types of tags.
        class PString(NavigableString):

        class BString(NavigableString):

        soup = self.soup(
            "<div>Hello.<p>Here is <b>some <i>bolded</i></b> text",
            string_containers = {
                'b': BString,
                'p': PString,

        # The string before the <p> tag is a regular NavigableString.
        assert isinstance(soup.div.contents[0], NavigableString)
        # The string inside the <p> tag, but not inside the <i> tag,
        # is a PString.
        assert isinstance(soup.p.contents[0], PString)

        # Every string inside the <b> tag is a BString, even the one that
        # was also inside an <i> tag.
        for s in soup.b.strings:
            assert isinstance(s, BString)

        # Now that parsing was complete, the string_container_stack
        # (where this information was kept) has been cleared out.
        self.assertEqual([], soup.string_container_stack)

class TestWarnings(SoupTest):

    def _assert_warning(self, warnings, cls):
        for w in warnings:
            if isinstance(w.message, cls):
                return w
        raise Exception("%s warning not found in %r" % cls, warnings)
    def _assert_no_parser_specified(self, w):
        warning = self._assert_warning(w, GuessedAtParserWarning)
        message = str(warning.message)

    def test_warning_if_no_parser_specified(self):
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as w:
            soup = BeautifulSoup("<a><b></b></a>")

    def test_warning_if_parser_specified_too_vague(self):
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as w:
            soup = BeautifulSoup("<a><b></b></a>", "html")

    def test_no_warning_if_explicit_parser_specified(self):
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as w:
            soup = BeautifulSoup("<a><b></b></a>", "html.parser")
        self.assertEqual([], w)

    def test_parseOnlyThese_renamed_to_parse_only(self):
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as w:
            soup = self.soup("<a><b></b></a>", parseOnlyThese=SoupStrainer("b"))
        msg = str(w[0].message)
        self.assertTrue("parseOnlyThese" in msg)
        self.assertTrue("parse_only" in msg)
        self.assertEqual(b"<b></b>", soup.encode())

    def test_fromEncoding_renamed_to_from_encoding(self):
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as w:
            utf8 = b"\xc3\xa9"
            soup = self.soup(utf8, fromEncoding="utf8")
        msg = str(w[0].message)
        self.assertTrue("fromEncoding" in msg)
        self.assertTrue("from_encoding" in msg)
        self.assertEqual("utf8", soup.original_encoding)

    def test_unrecognized_keyword_argument(self):
            TypeError, self.soup, "<a>", no_such_argument=True)

    def test_disk_file_warning(self):
        filehandle = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile()
        filename =
            with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as w:
                soup = self.soup(filename)
            warning = self._assert_warning(w, MarkupResemblesLocatorWarning)
            self.assertTrue("looks like a filename" in str(warning.message))

        # The file no longer exists, so Beautiful Soup will no longer issue the warning.
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as w:
            soup = self.soup(filename)
        self.assertEqual([], w)

    def test_url_warning_with_bytes_url(self):
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as warning_list:
            soup = self.soup(b"")
        warning = self._assert_warning(
            warning_list, MarkupResemblesLocatorWarning
        self.assertTrue("looks like a URL" in str(warning.message))

    def test_url_warning_with_unicode_url(self):
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as warning_list:
            # note - this url must differ from the bytes one otherwise
            # python's warnings system swallows the second warning
            soup = self.soup("")
        warning = self._assert_warning(
            warning_list, MarkupResemblesLocatorWarning
        self.assertTrue("looks like a URL" in str(warning.message))

    def test_url_warning_with_bytes_and_space(self):
        # Here the markup contains something besides a URL, so no warning
        # is issued.
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as warning_list:
            soup = self.soup(b" is great")
        self.assertFalse(any("looks like a URL" in str(w.message) 
            for w in warning_list))

    def test_url_warning_with_unicode_and_space(self):
        with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as warning_list:
            soup = self.soup(" is great")
        self.assertFalse(any("looks like a URL" in str(w.message) 
            for w in warning_list))

class TestSelectiveParsing(SoupTest):

    def test_parse_with_soupstrainer(self):
        markup = "No<b>Yes</b><a>No<b>Yes <c>Yes</c></b>"
        strainer = SoupStrainer("b")
        soup = self.soup(markup, parse_only=strainer)
        self.assertEqual(soup.encode(), b"<b>Yes</b><b>Yes <c>Yes</c></b>")

class TestEntitySubstitution(unittest.TestCase):
    """Standalone tests of the EntitySubstitution class."""
    def setUp(self):
        self.sub = EntitySubstitution

    def test_simple_html_substitution(self):
        # Unicode characters corresponding to named HTML entites
        # are substituted, and no others.
        s = "foo\u2200\N{SNOWMAN}\u00f5bar"

    def test_smart_quote_substitution(self):
        # MS smart quotes are a common source of frustration, so we
        # give them a special test.
        quotes = b"\x91\x92foo\x93\x94"
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(quotes)

    def test_xml_converstion_includes_no_quotes_if_make_quoted_attribute_is_false(self):
        s = 'Welcome to "my bar"'
        self.assertEqual(self.sub.substitute_xml(s, False), s)

    def test_xml_attribute_quoting_normally_uses_double_quotes(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.sub.substitute_xml("Welcome", True),
        self.assertEqual(self.sub.substitute_xml("Bob's Bar", True),
                          '"Bob\'s Bar"')

    def test_xml_attribute_quoting_uses_single_quotes_when_value_contains_double_quotes(self):
        s = 'Welcome to "my bar"'
        self.assertEqual(self.sub.substitute_xml(s, True),
                          "'Welcome to \"my bar\"'")

    def test_xml_attribute_quoting_escapes_single_quotes_when_value_contains_both_single_and_double_quotes(self):
        s = 'Welcome to "Bob\'s Bar"'
            self.sub.substitute_xml(s, True),
            '"Welcome to &quot;Bob\'s Bar&quot;"')

    def test_xml_quotes_arent_escaped_when_value_is_not_being_quoted(self):
        quoted = 'Welcome to "Bob\'s Bar"'
        self.assertEqual(self.sub.substitute_xml(quoted), quoted)

    def test_xml_quoting_handles_angle_brackets(self):

    def test_xml_quoting_handles_ampersands(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.sub.substitute_xml("AT&T"), "AT&amp;T")

    def test_xml_quoting_including_ampersands_when_they_are_part_of_an_entity(self):

    def test_xml_quoting_ignoring_ampersands_when_they_are_part_of_an_entity(self):
    def test_quotes_not_html_substituted(self):
        """There's no need to do this except inside attribute values."""
        text = 'Bob\'s "bar"'
        self.assertEqual(self.sub.substitute_html(text), text)

class TestEncodingConversion(SoupTest):
    # Test Beautiful Soup's ability to decode and encode from various
    # encodings.

    def setUp(self):
        super(TestEncodingConversion, self).setUp()
        self.unicode_data = '<html><head><meta charset="utf-8"/></head><body><foo>Sacr\N{LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE} bleu!</foo></body></html>'
        self.utf8_data = self.unicode_data.encode("utf-8")
        # Just so you know what it looks like.
            b'<html><head><meta charset="utf-8"/></head><body><foo>Sacr\xc3\xa9 bleu!</foo></body></html>')

    def test_ascii_in_unicode_out(self):
        # ASCII input is converted to Unicode. The original_encoding
        # attribute is set to 'utf-8', a superset of ASCII.
        chardet = bs4.dammit.chardet_dammit
            def noop(str):
                return None
            # Disable chardet, which will realize that the ASCII is ASCII.
            bs4.dammit.chardet_dammit = noop
            ascii = b"<foo>a</foo>"
            soup_from_ascii = self.soup(ascii)
            unicode_output = soup_from_ascii.decode()
            self.assertTrue(isinstance(unicode_output, str))
            self.assertEqual(unicode_output, self.document_for(ascii.decode()))
            self.assertEqual(soup_from_ascii.original_encoding.lower(), "utf-8")
            bs4.dammit.chardet_dammit = chardet

    def test_unicode_in_unicode_out(self):
        # Unicode input is left alone. The original_encoding attribute
        # is not set.
        soup_from_unicode = self.soup(self.unicode_data)
        self.assertEqual(soup_from_unicode.decode(), self.unicode_data)
        self.assertEqual(, 'Sacr\xe9 bleu!')
        self.assertEqual(soup_from_unicode.original_encoding, None)

    def test_utf8_in_unicode_out(self):
        # UTF-8 input is converted to Unicode. The original_encoding
        # attribute is set.
        soup_from_utf8 = self.soup(self.utf8_data)
        self.assertEqual(soup_from_utf8.decode(), self.unicode_data)
        self.assertEqual(, 'Sacr\xe9 bleu!')

    def test_utf8_out(self):
        # The internal data structures can be encoded as UTF-8.
        soup_from_unicode = self.soup(self.unicode_data)
        self.assertEqual(soup_from_unicode.encode('utf-8'), self.utf8_data)

        "Bad HTMLParser detected; skipping test of non-ASCII characters in attribute name.")
    def test_attribute_name_containing_unicode_characters(self):
        markup = '<div><a \N{SNOWMAN}="snowman"></a></div>'
        self.assertEqual(self.soup(markup).div.encode("utf8"), markup.encode("utf8"))

class TestUnicodeDammit(unittest.TestCase):
    """Standalone tests of UnicodeDammit."""

    def test_unicode_input(self):
        markup = "I'm already Unicode! \N{SNOWMAN}"
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(markup)
        self.assertEqual(dammit.unicode_markup, markup)

    def test_smart_quotes_to_unicode(self):
        markup = b"<foo>\x91\x92\x93\x94</foo>"
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(markup)
            dammit.unicode_markup, "<foo>\u2018\u2019\u201c\u201d</foo>")

    def test_smart_quotes_to_xml_entities(self):
        markup = b"<foo>\x91\x92\x93\x94</foo>"
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(markup, smart_quotes_to="xml")
            dammit.unicode_markup, "<foo>&#x2018;&#x2019;&#x201C;&#x201D;</foo>")

    def test_smart_quotes_to_html_entities(self):
        markup = b"<foo>\x91\x92\x93\x94</foo>"
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(markup, smart_quotes_to="html")
            dammit.unicode_markup, "<foo>&lsquo;&rsquo;&ldquo;&rdquo;</foo>")

    def test_smart_quotes_to_ascii(self):
        markup = b"<foo>\x91\x92\x93\x94</foo>"
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(markup, smart_quotes_to="ascii")
            dammit.unicode_markup, """<foo>''""</foo>""")

    def test_detect_utf8(self):
        utf8 = b"Sacr\xc3\xa9 bleu! \xe2\x98\x83"
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(utf8)
        self.assertEqual(dammit.original_encoding.lower(), 'utf-8')
        self.assertEqual(dammit.unicode_markup, 'Sacr\xe9 bleu! \N{SNOWMAN}')

    def test_convert_hebrew(self):
        hebrew = b"\xed\xe5\xec\xf9"
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(hebrew, ["iso-8859-8"])
        self.assertEqual(dammit.original_encoding.lower(), 'iso-8859-8')
        self.assertEqual(dammit.unicode_markup, '\u05dd\u05d5\u05dc\u05e9')

    def test_dont_see_smart_quotes_where_there_are_none(self):
        utf_8 = b"\343\202\261\343\203\274\343\202\277\343\202\244 Watch"
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(utf_8)
        self.assertEqual(dammit.original_encoding.lower(), 'utf-8')
        self.assertEqual(dammit.unicode_markup.encode("utf-8"), utf_8)

    def test_ignore_inappropriate_codecs(self):
        utf8_data = "Räksmörgås".encode("utf-8")
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(utf8_data, ["iso-8859-8"])
        self.assertEqual(dammit.original_encoding.lower(), 'utf-8')

    def test_ignore_invalid_codecs(self):
        utf8_data = "Räksmörgås".encode("utf-8")
        for bad_encoding in ['.utf8', '...', 'utF---16.!']:
            dammit = UnicodeDammit(utf8_data, [bad_encoding])
            self.assertEqual(dammit.original_encoding.lower(), 'utf-8')

    def test_exclude_encodings(self):
        # This is UTF-8.
        utf8_data = "Räksmörgås".encode("utf-8")

        # But if we exclude UTF-8 from consideration, the guess is
        # Windows-1252.
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(utf8_data, exclude_encodings=["utf-8"])
        self.assertEqual(dammit.original_encoding.lower(), 'windows-1252')

        # And if we exclude that, there is no valid guess at all.
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(
            utf8_data, exclude_encodings=["utf-8", "windows-1252"])
        self.assertEqual(dammit.original_encoding, None)

    def test_encoding_detector_replaces_junk_in_encoding_name_with_replacement_character(self):
        detected = EncodingDetector(
            b'<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-\xdb" ?>')
        encodings = list(detected.encodings)
        assert 'utf-\N{REPLACEMENT CHARACTER}' in encodings

    def test_detect_html5_style_meta_tag(self):

        for data in (
            b'<html><meta charset="euc-jp" /></html>',
            b"<html><meta charset='euc-jp' /></html>",
            b"<html><meta charset=euc-jp /></html>",
            b"<html><meta charset=euc-jp/></html>"):
            dammit = UnicodeDammit(data, is_html=True)
                "euc-jp", dammit.original_encoding)

    def test_last_ditch_entity_replacement(self):
        # This is a UTF-8 document that contains bytestrings
        # completely incompatible with UTF-8 (ie. encoded with some other
        # encoding).
        # Since there is no consistent encoding for the document,
        # Unicode, Dammit will eventually encode the document as UTF-8
        # and encode the incompatible characters as REPLACEMENT
        # CHARACTER.
        # If chardet is installed, it will detect that the document
        # can be converted into ISO-8859-1 without errors. This happens
        # to be the wrong encoding, but it is a consistent encoding, so the
        # code we're testing here won't run.
        # So we temporarily disable chardet if it's present.
        doc = b"""\357\273\277<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
        chardet = bs4.dammit.chardet_dammit
            def noop(str):
                return None
            bs4.dammit.chardet_dammit = noop
            dammit = UnicodeDammit(doc)
            self.assertEqual(True, dammit.contains_replacement_characters)
            self.assertTrue("\ufffd" in dammit.unicode_markup)

            soup = BeautifulSoup(doc, "html.parser")
            bs4.dammit.chardet_dammit = chardet

    def test_byte_order_mark_removed(self):
        # A document written in UTF-16LE will have its byte order marker stripped.
        data = b'\xff\xfe<\x00a\x00>\x00\xe1\x00\xe9\x00<\x00/\x00a\x00>\x00'
        dammit = UnicodeDammit(data)
        self.assertEqual("<a>áé</a>", dammit.unicode_markup)
        self.assertEqual("utf-16le", dammit.original_encoding)

    def test_detwingle(self):
        # Here's a UTF8 document.
        utf8 = ("\N{SNOWMAN}" * 3).encode("utf8")

        # Here's a Windows-1252 document.
        windows_1252 = (
            "\N{LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK}Hi, I like Windows!"
            "\N{RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK}").encode("windows_1252")

        # Through some unholy alchemy, they've been stuck together.
        doc = utf8 + windows_1252 + utf8

        # The document can't be turned into UTF-8:
        self.assertRaises(UnicodeDecodeError, doc.decode, "utf8")

        # Unicode, Dammit thinks the whole document is Windows-1252,
        # and decodes it into "☃☃☃“Hi, I like Windows!”☃☃☃"

        # But if we run it through fix_embedded_windows_1252, it's fixed:

        fixed = UnicodeDammit.detwingle(doc)
            "☃☃☃“Hi, I like Windows!”☃☃☃", fixed.decode("utf8"))

    def test_detwingle_ignores_multibyte_characters(self):
        # Each of these characters has a UTF-8 representation ending
        # in \x93. \x93 is a smart quote if interpreted as
        # Windows-1252. But our code knows to skip over multibyte
        # UTF-8 characters, so they'll survive the process unscathed.
        for tricky_unicode_char in (
            "\N{LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE}", # 2-byte char '\xc5\x93'
            "\N{LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER X}", # 3-byte char '\xe2\x82\x93'
            "\xf0\x90\x90\x93", # This is a CJK character, not sure which one.
            input = tricky_unicode_char.encode("utf8")
            output = UnicodeDammit.detwingle(input)
            self.assertEqual(output, input)

    def test_find_declared_encoding(self):
        # Test our ability to find a declared encoding inside an
        # XML or HTML document.
        # Even if the document comes in as Unicode, it may be
        # interesting to know what encoding was claimed
        # originally.

        html_unicode = '<html><head><meta charset="utf-8"></head></html>'
        html_bytes = html_unicode.encode("ascii")

        xml_unicode= '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?>'
        xml_bytes = xml_unicode.encode("ascii")

        m = EncodingDetector.find_declared_encoding
        self.assertEqual(None, m(html_unicode, is_html=False))
        self.assertEqual("utf-8", m(html_unicode, is_html=True))
        self.assertEqual("utf-8", m(html_bytes, is_html=True))

        self.assertEqual("iso-8859-1", m(xml_unicode))
        self.assertEqual("iso-8859-1", m(xml_bytes))

        # Normally, only the first few kilobytes of a document are checked for
        # an encoding.
        spacer = b' ' * 5000
        self.assertEqual(None, m(spacer + html_bytes))
        self.assertEqual(None, m(spacer + xml_bytes))

        # But you can tell find_declared_encoding to search an entire
        # HTML document.
            m(spacer + html_bytes, is_html=True, search_entire_document=True)

        # The XML encoding declaration has to be the very first thing
        # in the document. We'll allow whitespace before the document
        # starts, but nothing else.
            m(xml_bytes, search_entire_document=True)
            None, m(b'a' + xml_bytes, search_entire_document=True)
class TestNamedspacedAttribute(SoupTest):

    def test_name_may_be_none_or_missing(self):
        a = NamespacedAttribute("xmlns", None)
        self.assertEqual(a, "xmlns")

        a = NamespacedAttribute("xmlns")
        self.assertEqual(a, "xmlns")
    def test_attribute_is_equivalent_to_colon_separated_string(self):
        a = NamespacedAttribute("a", "b")
        self.assertEqual("a:b", a)

    def test_attributes_are_equivalent_if_prefix_and_name_identical(self):
        a = NamespacedAttribute("a", "b", "c")
        b = NamespacedAttribute("a", "b", "c")
        self.assertEqual(a, b)

        # The actual namespace is not considered.
        c = NamespacedAttribute("a", "b", None)
        self.assertEqual(a, c)

        # But name and prefix are important.
        d = NamespacedAttribute("a", "z", "c")
        self.assertNotEqual(a, d)

        e = NamespacedAttribute("z", "b", "c")
        self.assertNotEqual(a, e)

class TestAttributeValueWithCharsetSubstitution(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_content_meta_attribute_value(self):
        value = CharsetMetaAttributeValue("euc-jp")
        self.assertEqual("euc-jp", value)
        self.assertEqual("euc-jp", value.original_value)
        self.assertEqual("utf8", value.encode("utf8"))

    def test_content_meta_attribute_value(self):
        value = ContentMetaAttributeValue("text/html; charset=euc-jp")
        self.assertEqual("text/html; charset=euc-jp", value)
        self.assertEqual("text/html; charset=euc-jp", value.original_value)
        self.assertEqual("text/html; charset=utf8", value.encode("utf8"))